IR Sensor with OPAMP
IR Sensor with OPAMP

IR Sensor with OPAMP

IR sensor basically consist an IR LED and a Photodiode, this pair is generally called IR pair or Photo coupler. IR sensor work on the principal in which IR LED emits IR radiation and Photodiode sense that IR radiation. Photodiode resistance changes according to the amount of IR radiation falling on it, hence the voltage drop across it also changes and by using the voltage comparator (like LM358) we can sense the voltage change and generate the output accordingly.


Component required:

  • NE555 IC

      R2 = 220 E

      R3 =10K

  • CAPACITOR C1 = 0.01uf
  • On/off switch S1 &S2
  • LED
  • 9v battery


You can see the connections in the IR sensor circuit diagram. Photo diode is connected in reverse bias, inverting end of LM358 (PIN 2) is connected to the variable resistor, to adjust the sensitivity of the sensor. And non-inverting end (PIN 3) is connected to the junction of photodiode and a resistor.


When we turn ON the circuit there is no IR radiation towards photodiode and the Output of the comparator is LOW. When we take some object (not black) in front of IR pair, then IR emitted by IR LED is reflected by the object and absorbed by the photodiode. Now when reflected IR Falls on Photodiode, the voltage across photodiode drops, and the voltage across series resistor R2 increases. When the voltage at Resistor R2 (which is connected to the non-inverting end of comparator) gets higher than the voltage at inverting end, then the output becomes HIGH and LED turns ON.



  • On/off switches
  • Alert security Buzzer